Semen and Sperm Detection, Inc.
2601 Coolidge Rd, Suite 203
East Lansing, MI 48823
517-336-7734 or 888-875-7574

Monday - Friday 9:00 am to 6:00 pm

Saturday 10:00 am to 2:00 pm

Central Standard Time



1. Gaensslen RE. Sourcebook in Forensic Serology, Immunology, and Biochemistry, Research Foundation of the City University of New York, 1983. 

2. Babson AL, Read P and Phillips G. The importance of the substrate in assays of acid phosphatase in serum, American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 32 (1), July 1959, pp. 1-5. 

3. Barnett PD, Blake ET, Super-Mihalovich J, Harmor G, Rawlinson L and Wraxall B. Discussion of “Effects of presumptive test reagents on the ability to obtain restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns from human blood and semen stains”, Journal of Forensic Sciences, 37 (2), March 1992, p.369. 

4. Sensabaugh GF. The quantitative acid phosphatase test. A statistical analysis of endogenous and postcoital acid phosphatase levels in the vagina, Journal of Forensic Sciences, 24 (2), April 1979, pp. 346-365 

5. Schiff AF. Reliability of the acid phosphatase test for the identification of seminal fluid, Journal of Forensic Sciences, 23 (4), October 1978, pp. 833-843. 

6. Blake ET, Sensabaugh GF and Bashinski J. A systematic approach to the analysis o21f semen evidence, Fall Semiannual Seminar of the California Association of Criminalists, November 1980.

7. Johnston W, On the Iodine Test for Semen, April 8 1997,  The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal.

8. Whitney WF, The Identification of Seminal Stains. April 8 1997,  The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal.

9. Laux D, Forensic Detection of Semen The Acid Phosphatase Test Ohio Bureau of Criminal Identification. Undated.

10. Chen J, Kobilinsky L, Wolosin D, Shaler R, Baum H. A physical method for separating spermatozoa from epithelial cells in sexual assault evidence. J Forensic Sci 1998;43(1):114–118.

11. Campbell RJ, Department of Forensic Science, Forensic Biology Section, The Virginia Department of Forensic Science 2005.

12. Missouri State Highway Patrol Crime Laboratory Division Training Manual, DNA manual, June 2006.

13. Ledray and Barry, "Successfully Investigating Acquaintance Sexual Assault: A National Training Manual for Law Enforcement" 1998.

14. Richardson, J. R., Modern Scientific Evidence, The W. H. Anderson Company, USA 1961

15. Dale L. Laux, M.S. and Sarah E. Custis - Forensic Detection of Semen III. Detection of PSA Using Membrane Based Tests: Sensitivity Issues with Regards to the Presence of PSA in Other Body Fluids Jan 2004

16. PSA in body fluids – an overview for users of the SERATEC PSA SEMIQUANT Tests SERATEC Ges.f. Biotechnologie mbH April 2006.

17. Bill O. Gartside, Kevin J. Brewer, Carmella L. Strong - Estimation of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Extraction Efficiency from Forensic Samples Using the Seratecâ PSA Semiquant Semiquantitative Membrane Test April 2003 Table1 and Table 2

18.  Seratac Semiquant intended use manual  April 2005

19.  Abacus Abacard intended use manual January 2004

20. Dale L. Laux, M.S., Anthony J. Tambasco, and Elizabeth A. Benzinger, Ph.D. Forensic Detection of Semen II. Comparison of the Abacus Diagnostics OneStep ABAcard p30 Test and the Seratec PSA Semiquant Kit for the Determination of the Presence of Semen in Forensic Cases - November 2003

21. M. Hochmeister, O. Rudi1, U.V.Borer, A. Kratzer, Ch. Gehrig, and R. Dirnhofer -  Evaluation of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Membrane Tests for the Forensic Identification of Semen 1999.